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  • 12月 23, 2020
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In order to ensure the motion accuracy of the gear reducer, the mounting plane and relative motion guide surface of each part are the basis. Therefore, it is important to carry out proper repair and maintenance of the machine gears to prevent their damage and to carry out timely repairs and maintenance. Ensuring machine accuracy, ensuring good gearbox equipment and extending machine life are key.
First, the cause of gear damage.
In fact, friction is unavoidable and reasonable wear is normal during the relative sliding process between the rail joint faces, but when friction far exceeds friction between molecules, a large amount of metal will fall off the base gear without causing normal wear and tear, resulting in deformation of the gear. According to the experience of field management, the author summarizes that there are four main cases of gear damage and strain.
1. Poor lubrication.
Due to insufficient lubricant supply or blocked lubricant lines, when the gears slip relative to each other, no oil film is formed between the friction surfaces, resulting in dry friction, resulting in stretch strain in a short period of time.
2. Particle wear.
Sliding surfaces occur when sliding relatively when the dust preventer is not compact or the lubricant is not clean. Small hard objects or small iron chips into the sliding surface, so that these small hard or small iron chips as an abrasive, resulting in uneven wear on the rail surface, forming a strain. Yes.
3. Oxidation wear
Due to unconscious maintenance, the gearbox – some of the less commonly used flanks will rust. This means that oxygen seeps into the air, forming a hard, brittle oxide on the surface of the orbit. Iron oxide gradually falls off and enters the orbit for friction. There is a pull between the two sides of the gear. This usually occurs on some ground gears, bed end gears, etc. that are not commonly used.
4. The gear itself is not strong enough:
The plastic deformation of the teeth during operation due to variable loads is due to defects in the gears, such as the hardness and toughness of the material.
Second, prevention.
Through the above analysis of the cause of gear damage, appropriate preventive measures can be taken.
2.1 Mechanical gears must have adequate and reasonable lubrication conditions.
Obviously, good lubrication conditions are the key to reducing gear strain. Due to the relative motion of the guide, after filling the surface of the guide rail with lubricant, an oil film is formed, causing liquid friction. It does not directly rub against the orbital surface or with the molecules inside the lubricant, thus avoiding deformation and orbital extension of the orbital surface. The operating accuracy of the gears has been improved.
2.2 There must be reasonable and necessary protective measures.
In order to prevent iron chips, grinding particles, dust and other impurities from entering the gear surface, resulting in gear damage, the mechanical gear must be reasonably protected. Such as our common folding plate accessories, organ cover and gear end of the felt, are effective protective measures. Such as reducer manufacturers can take these factors into account when producing reducers, so there is not much to say here. It is important to note, however, that during routine maintenance inspections of equipment, no felt is often found to be installed and the surface of the rails is not tightened. As a result, the felt is like a scorpion’s ear – invisible and unable to protect it.
2.3 Gears enhance rigidity.
The greater the rigidity of the mechanical gear, the better its wear resistance and its stress. It can be seen that increasing gear stiffness is a very direct way to reduce or avoid stress. So, how to improve the stiffness of the gear? Below, I recommend two methods: first, gear surface quenching. Using the principle of rolling the copper roller on the gear surface, an electrical contact quenching device can be used, and when the voltage is low and the current is high, the contact resistance between the copper roller and the gear generates heat, which causes the gear and roller to generate heat. The contact center temperature rises to quench in an instant? Fire temperature. After the roll leaves, its own thermal conduction and external air cool down rapidly, forming a quenching layer. After quenching, the hardness can generally reach HLC50 or so, and the depth of the quenching layer is generally between 0.25 and 0.3 mm. The invention is simple to operate, has small deformation and significantly improves the rigidity and wear resistance of the gears. The overhaul of machine gears often doesn’t go through this process.
Second, the track is mosaic. X2010-type longmen milling machine, due to poor rigidity of the beam wheel, short processing time after processing, poor processing quality. The plant equipment and maintenance personnel jointly decided that the gear after steel plate treatment, in recent years no hair pull.
Therefore, strict implementation of equipment operating procedures and equipment maintenance system is the key to prevent railway damage. In order to keep the equipment in good condition for a long time, the operator and maintenance personnel must work closely together to do a good job in the daily maintenance of the equipment, so that the equipment is always clean, the lubrication system is not hindered. Change lubricants frequently and check the surface of the equipment regularly. Only in this way can the deformation of mechanical gears be truly reduced or even avoided, thus extending the service life of the equipment gears and ensuring the accuracy of the reducer.

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